How Does Transcranial Mag.ic Stimulation-www.haole55.com

Depression The magnetic field acts on the structure of the cerebral cortex, determining a modification of its electrical activity that can persist beyond the period of the stimulation itself, found a modulation in the secretion of specific neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin, both altered in mood disorders, after treatment with TMS. It is hypothesized that the .bination of these effects may be responsible for the symptomatic improvement observed over most of the patients treated with TMS. In what areas is it used? Already in the mid-80s Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is used in the clinic as a diagnostic tool for neurological diseases leading to an alteration of the function of different neural structures. In particular, used to determine whether there are injuries of different nature (inflammatory, ischemic .pression, tumor) along the way motor. It has recently been reported, in a .pletely accidental, such as patients with neurological disease who underwent TMS for diagnosis and who had associated with a mood disorder (depression) could present an improvement in the symptoms of depression. This finding has triggered the use of TMS as a therapeutic treatment in psychiatry. TMS or RTMS therapy is a technique of pre-defined in the study of cortical functions, particularly motor as demonstrated by studies of clinical neurophysiology. Recently, TMS is a single repetitive stimulus that has been used to study even in the healthy cognitive function. This approach can be used not only to understand whether a given brain area is crucial for a given cognitive task, but also for groped to modulate a specific brain function, both in healthy people with the disease. Based on the cognitive function studied and the stimulation parameters used (frequency, duration, intensity and stimulation site), the TMS can be activated that turn off a specific cognitive function. Although the effects of interfering or facilitating TMS are usually transient, c ‘is the possibility that such modulations persist for a longer period of time. In the literature there are some works which show that TMS can improve some cognitive functions or can serve as a .plementary treatment for some diseases, such as unilateral spatial neglect and aphasia and therefore interesting to pursue this field trying to figure out, with further research, the mechanisms by which TMS change brain activity by stimulating an improvement in behavior. What are the indications for its use in psychiatry? The indication for the use of TMS in psychiatry consists of drug-resistant RTMS therapy for depression . In particular, TMS was applied in the treatment of depression in its various expressions, with restrictions related to age and the presence of psychotic symptoms. TMS or Rtms is as an alternative to drug treatment, but as a support to it. The indication for its use is reserved for patients who do not find any benefit from drug therapy (drug resistance). For drug resistance refers to an inadequate response after drug treatment at standard doses, for a period of at least three months, with a class of antidepressants or neuroleptics. What are the results so far? The cases derived from the experience of Italian and international centers seem documented effectiveness of the treatment of transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with drug-resistant depression at a rate of around 40-50%. This finding should be interpreted as symptomatic improvement of the clinical picture, not as .plete resolution of disease. What are the contraindications to its use? There are few contraindications to the use of TMS. In particular, its use is not re.mended in patients who have a history of epilepsy, in carriers of pacemakers and / or hearing aids, metal implants in subjects with craniofacial reconstructions resulting from plastic, and in women pregnant. What are the side effects? There were no major side effects to date excluding sporadic cases of headache which were resolved, however, within a few hours after treatment. The drug resistance (ie, the failure to response to pharmacological treatment) constitutes one of the most problematic aspects for the therapeutic treatment of mood disorders, particularly depression. It is estimated that a percentage of 30-40% of patients suffering from mood disorder not responds adequately to drug therapy. An alternative to drug therapy is represented by methods of intervention "unconventional" which act as a support to drug treatment itself. Historically, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the one that gave the most encouraging results. However ECT is a highly invasive method that requires general anesthesia, the patient and the induction of a seizure; ECT is also often cause serious side effects and long-lasting as memory loss and confusion. This has severely limited the use of ECT as a form of therapeutic intervention in clinical settings despite the beneficial effects documented. A few years ago Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is used in some centers as an alternative to electroconvulsive therapy with encouraging results and some ways .parable to those obtained by electroshock. The great advantage of Transcranial Mag.ic Stimulation is the fact that it is a non-invasive, painless and virtually free of side effects. Not also requires sedation of the patient. 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